Discovery of Gold in California, by Gen. John
An Eyewitness to the Gold Discovery
A Rush to the Gold Washings From the California
Military Governor Mason's Report on the Discovery of
William T. Sherman and the Gold Rush
Dramatic Impact of the Gold Discovery, by Theo. H.
The Discovery as Viewed in New York and
Gold Rush and Anti-Chinese Race Hatred
Other Museum Gold Rush Items
Letter Sheet Exhibit from the California Historical Society
California Gold Rush Chronology 1846 - 1849
California Gold Rush Chronology 1850 - 1851
California Gold Rush Chronology 1852 - 1854
California Gold Rush Chronology 1855 - 1856
California Gold Rush Chronology 1857 - 1861
California Gold Rush Chronology 1862 - 1865
Steamer Day in the 1850s
Sam Brannan Opens New Bank - 1857
The Miner's Ten Commandments.
A man spake these words, and said: I am a miner, wandering "from away down east," to
sojourn in a strange land. And behold I've seen the elephant, yea, verily, I saw him, and
bear witness, that from the key of his trunk to the end of his tail, his whole body hath
passed before me; and I followed him until his huge feet stood before a clapboard shanty;
then with his trunk extended he pointed to a candle-card tacked upon a shingle, as
though he would say Read, and I read the
MINERS' TEN COMMANDMENTS
Thou shalt have no other claim than one.
Thou shalt not make unto thyself any false claim, nor any likeness to a mean man, by
jumping one: for I, a miner, am a just one, and will visit the miners around about, and they
will judge thee; and when they shall decide, thou shalt take thy pick, thy pan, thy shovel
and thy blankets with all thou hast and shall depart seeking other good diggings, but thou
shalt find none. Then when thou hast paid out all thy dust, worn out thy boots and
garments so that there is nothing good about them but the pockets, and thy patience is like
unto thy garments, then in sorrow shall thou return to find thy claim worked out, and yet
thou hath no pile to hide in the ground, or in the old boot beneath thy bunk, or in buckskin
or in bottle beneath thy cabin, and at last thou shalt hire thy body out to make thy board and
save thy bacon.
Thou shalt not go prospecting before thy claim gives out. Neither shalt thou take thy
money, nor thy gold dust, nor thy good name, to the gaming table in vain; for monte,
twenty-one, roulette, faro, lansquenet and poker, will prove to thee that the more
thou puttest down the less thou shalt take up; and when thou thinkest of thy wife and
children, thou shalt not hold thyself guiltlessbut insane.
Thou shalt not remember what thy friends do at home on the Sabbath day, lest the
remembrance may not compare favorably with what thou doest here. Six days thou mayst
dig or pick; but the other day is Sunday; yet thou washest all thy dirty shirts, darnest all thy
stockings, tap thy boots, mend thy clothing, chop the whole week's firewood, make up
and bake thy bread, and boil thy pork and beans, that thou wait not when thou returnest
from thy long-tom weary. For in six days' labor only though canst do it in six
months; and though, and thy morals and thy conscience, be none the better for it; but
reproach thee, shouldst thou ever return with thy worn-out body to thy mother's
Though shalt not think more of all thy gold, and how thou canst make it fastest, than how
thou will enjoy it after thou hast ridden rough-shod over thy good old parents'
precepts and examples, that thou mayest have nothing to reproach thee, when left ALONE
in the land where thy father's blessing and thy mother's love hath sent thee.
Thou shalt not kill; neither thy body by working in the rain, even though thou shalt make
enough to buy physic and attendance with; nor thy neighbor's body in a duel, or in anger,
for by "keeping cool," thou canst save his life and thy conscience. Neither shalt thou
destroy thyself by getting "tight," nor "stewed," nor "high," nor "corned," nor "half-
seas over," nor "three sheets in the wind," by drinking smoothing
down"brandy slings," "gin cocktails," "whiskey punches," "rum toddies,"
nor "egg-noggs." Neither shalt thou suck "mint juleps," nor "sherry-
cobblers," through a straw, nor gurgle from a bottle the "raw material," nor take "it
straight" from a decanter; for, while thou art swallowing down thy purse, and the coat from
off thy back thou art burning the coat from off thy stomach; and if thou couldst see the
houses and lands, and gold dust, and home comforts already lying there"a
huge pile"thou shouldst feel a choking in thy throat; and when to that thou
addest thy crooked walkings thou wilt feel disgusted with thyself, and inquire "Is thy
servant a dog that he doeth these things!" Verily, thou shalt say, "Farewell, old bottle, I
will kiss thy gurgling lips no more; slings, cocktails, punches, smashes, cobblers, nogs,
toddies, sangarees and juleps, forever farewell. Thy remembrance shames one; henceforth,
I cut thy acquaintance, and headaches, tremblings, heart-burnings, blue devils, and
all the unholy catalogue of evils that follow in thy train. My wife's smiles and my
children's merry-hearted laugh, shall charm and reward me for having the manly
firmness and courage to say NO. I wish thee an eternal farewell."
Thou shalt not grow discouraged, nor think of going home before thou hast made thy
"pile," because thou hast not "struck a lead," nor found a "rich crevice," nor sunk a hole
upon a "pocket," lest in going home thou shalt leave four dollars a day, and going to work,
ashamed, at fifty cents, and serve thee right; for thou knowest by staying here, thou
mightst strike a lead and fifty dollars a day, and keep thy manly self respect, and then go
home with enough to make thyself and others happy.
Thou shalt not steal a pick, or a shovel, or a pan from thy fellow-miner; nor take
away his tools without his leave; nor borrow those he cannot spare; nor return them
broken, nor trouble him to fetch them back again, nor talk with him while his water rent is
running on, nor remove his stake to enlarge thy claim, nor undermine his bank in following
a lead, nor pan out gold from his "riffle box," nor wash the "tailings" from his sluice's
mouth. Neither shalt thou pick out specimens from the company's pan to put them in thy
mouth or pocket; nor cheat thy partner of his share; nor steal from thy cabin-mate his
gold dust, to add to thine, for he will be sure to discover what thou hast done, and will
straightaway call his fellow miners together, and if the law hinder them not, will hang thee,
or give thy fifty lashes, or shave thy head and brand thee, like a horse thief, with "R" upon
thy cheek, to be known and read of all men, Californians in particular.
Thou shalt not tell any false tales about "good diggings in the mountains," to thy neighbor
that thou mayest benefit a friend who had mules, and provisions, and tools and blankets he
cannot sell,lest in deceiving thy neighbor, when he returneth through the
snow, with naught save his rifle, he present thee with the contents thereof, and like a dog,
thou shalt fall down and die.
Thou shalt not commit unsuitable matrimony, nor covet "single blessedness;" nor forget
absent maidens; nor neglect thy "first love;"but thou shalt consider how
faithfully and patiently she awaiteth thy return; yea and covereth each epistle that thou
sendest with kisses of kindly welcomeuntil she hath thyself. Neither shalt
thou cove thy neighbor's wife, nor trifle with the affections of his daughter; yet, if thy heart
be free, and thou dost love and covet each other, thou shalt "pop the question" like a man.
A new Commandment give I unto theeif thou has a wife and little ones, that
thou lovest dearer than life,that thou keep them continually before thee, to
cheer and urge thee onward, until thou canst say, "I have enoughGod bless
themI will return." Then from thy much-loved home, with open arms
shall thy come forth to welcome thee, with weeping tears of unutterable joy that thou art
come; then in the fullness of thy heart's gratitude, thou shalt kneel together before thy
Heavenly Father, to thank him for thy safe return. AMENSo mote it be.
These "commandments" were actually written in 1853 by James M. Hutchings (1818-1902), and first published in the Placerville Herald newspaper. This was the most popular of the hundreds of letter sheets published in the 1850-1870 era, and was so profitable for Mr. Hutchings that he was able to publish the successful Hutching's California Magazine.
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Be sure and see The California Historical Society's exhibit on Gold Rush letter sheets.
February 8, 2000